(category) – Technical

Direct Stream Digital (DSD)

Direct Stream Digital (DSD) uses a sampling rate of 2.8224 MHz to directly record a 1-bit signal. Used for recording SACD, launched by Sony in 1999.

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Earthing

Earthing for Audio The following is taken from an article published in the Nov/Dec 2005 issue of LineUp by Peter Thomas, Managing Director of the Professional Monitor Company, with his kind permission. At the outset, I need to make clear that there are no references to PMC loudspeakers at all (except in this introduction). Neither…

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Electret wiring

Electret personal microphones are all unbalanced. They all need a screen, both for the cable and for the grille and casing around the capsule. This usually gets connected to 0V. The electronics inside the capsule will have two external connections. One connection always needs to be kept more +ve than the other but it makes…

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Electromagnetic Spectrum

The Electromagnetic Spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. See the excellent diagram reproduced by kind permission of Louis Keiner http://www.keiner.us/. The sections of particular interest to IPS members are usually referred to as the Radio Spectrum (although they are mostly used for television!), and are: Low Frequency (LF) covers frequencies…

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Impedance

Electrical impedance is effectively resistance in an AC circuit (see Ohms). Impedances are significantly more complicated than simple resistance because they are frequency conscious and because they can apply to the behaviour of an entire circuit rather than a single element. There are load impedances, having the effect of a virtual resistor across the input…

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Induction Loop

An Induction Loop or Audio Frequency Induction Loop System (AFILS) is a system commonly used by hearing aid users to clearly hear the sound in a theatre, through the bandit-proof glass screens in a bank or just a telephone call. It can also be used to provide wireless talkback or IEM to crew or presenters…

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Interference Tube

An Interference Tube is simply a long metal tube with a series of circumferential slots cut into it, fitted onto a directional Microphone. These slots produce interference patterns in sound waves from the sides, resulting in partial cancellation of off-axis sounds and a resultant apparent increase in the gain of sounds from directly in front.

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Intermodulation

Q: What is intermodulation? What causes intermods? A: Intermodulation generally only comes up in conversation when discussing interference. To understand about intermodulation products, or intermods, you need to know a little bit about transmitter and receiver design. Transmitters and receivers are designed to work at a particular frequency. High frequencies, such as those used in…

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Jackfield

Most mixers, except for portable types, have an associated Jackfield, also known as a Patchbay, either integral with the mixer frame or fitted nearby in a wall-mounted rack or free-standing console. The jackfield is used to terminate incoming lines from remote studios, tape machines etc and to provide access to the mixer line inputs and…

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Ohms

Ohms are a measure of the resistance to a flow of current. The name derives from the German physicist Georg Simon Ohm (1759-1854). The symbol for the ohm is the Greek capital letter omega. If the Greek letter cannot be used, the word ohm is used instead. In a simple circuit the relationship between the…

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