Ray Dolby was mainly responsible for the development of the electronic aspects of the Ampex videotape recording system in the early 1950s. In 1957 he left Ampex to study at Cambridge University in England, from where he received a PhD degree in physics in 1961, and was elected a Fellow of Pembroke College (Honorary Fellow, 1983). During his last year at Cambridge, he was also a consultant to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Ray established Dolby Laboratories in London in 1965, and in 1976 he moved to San Francisco, where his company established further offices, laboratories, and manufacturing facilities. He holds more than 50 US patents, and has written papers on videotape recording, long wavelength X-ray analysis, and noise reduction.